The function of the boiler and its main components should be appropriate for us to know, especially for those who are working in factories that use this tool. Basically, industrial equipment is endless to discuss, after in the previous article we have reviewed various types of industrial equipment such as pumps, evaporators, desalter, condensers and so on. This article will discuss about boilers because this tool is one of the tools commonly used in oil refineries and in other factories. Of course you have all heard the name of this tool, but may not understand what is meant by the boiler, boiler function and its main components. To understand this, please read the review below.
Basically, the boiler is a device that functions to heat water by using heat from the combustion of fuel, the heat of the combustion results, then the heat from the combustion is flowed into water to produce steam (water vapor that has a high temperature). From this understanding, it means that we can conclude that the boiler functions to produce steam (steam) which can be used for further processes / needs. As we know that steam can be used to maintain temperature in the distillation column of petroleum and the evaporation process on the evaporator. Generally, the fuel used to heat boilers is coal, gas and fuel oil.
Parts of Boilers and their Functions
Just as pumps, compressors and other plant equipment are composed of various components so that the tool can operate and carry out its role. Boilers are also composed of various components with their respective functions. Below is the function of each component in the boiler, namely:
This section is the place where the fuel combustion will become a source of heat, the process of receiving heat by the water media is done through pipes that have been flowed with water, the pipes stick to the furnace walls. The process of heat transfer in a furnace occurs in three ways:
Radiant heat transfer, where there will be a radiant heat from the fire or gas that will stick to the tube wall so that the heat will be absorbed by the fluid flowing in it.
Heat transfer by conduction, heat flows through the conductor from the side of the pipe which receives heat into the side of the pipe which gives heat to the water.
Convection heat transfer. heat that occurs with the contact of water molecules so that the heat will spread to each flow of water.
Inside the furnace, the combustion chamber is divided into two parts, the first and the second. In the first chamber, inside it will be direct heating from the source of heat received by the tube (pipe), while in the second chamber contained at the top, the heat received comes from hot air resulting from combustion from the first chamber. So, the function of this second heating chamber is to absorb the wasted heat from the first heating chamber, so that the heat energy that is wasted for free is not too large, and to control the heat of the fluid that has been heated in the first room so as not to experience excessive heat loss .
2. Steam Drum
The steam drum functions as a reservoir for hot water and where steam is formed. This drum holds saturated steam along with water with a ratio between 50% water and 50% steam. to avoid water from being carried away by steam, it is fitted with barriers, water which has a low temperature will go down and high temperature water will rise up and then evaporate.
Is a place for drying steam, because the steam coming from the steam drum is still wet so it cannot be used. The continued heating process uses a superheater pipe that is heated to a temperature of 260 ° C to 350 ° C. With this temperature, steam will become dry and can be used to drive turbines and other equipment.
4. Air Heater
This component is a tool that serves to heat the air used to blow / blow fuel so it can burn completely. The air that will be exhaled, before passing through the air heater has the same temperature as the normal air temperature (outside temperature) which is 38 ° C. However, after going through the air heater, the air temperature will increase to 230 ° C so that it can be used to remove the water content contained therein because water vapor can disrupt the combustion process.
5. Dust Collector (Ash Collector)
This section serves to capture or collect ash that is in the combustion flow to the dust that is included in the flue gas. The advantage of using this tool is the combustion gases which are discharged into the air free from dust content. The reason is because the dust can pollute the air in the surrounding environment, and aims to reduce the possibility of damage to the tool due to the friction of ash and sand.
6. Regulatory Disposal of Used Gas
Smoke from the combustion chamber is sucked by an IDF (Induced Draft Fan) blower through a dust collector which will then be discharged through the chimney. The smoke gas regulator damper is adjusted first as needed before the IDF is ignited, because the larger the damper is opened the greater the suction that will occur from the furnace.
7. Safety Valve
This tool serves to dispose of steam when the steam pressure has exceeded the specified limit. This valve consists of two types, namely the wet steam safety valve and the dry steam safety valve. This safety valve can be adjusted according to the specified maximum aspects. In the wet steam is usually set at a pressure of 21 kg per cm squared, while for the safety valve dry steam is set at a pressure of 20.5 kg per cm squared.
8. Sight Glass
Measuring cup mounted on the top of the drum that serves to determine the height of the water in the drum. The aim is to facilitate controlling the water level in the boiler while the boiler is operating. These estimating glasses must be washed periodically to avoid clogging which makes the water level unreadable.
9. Disposing of Kettle Water
This boiler component serves to dispose of water in the upper drum. Disposal of water is carried out if there are substances that cannot be dissolved, for example simply the emergence of foam which can interfere with observations of the estimating glass. To remove water from the drum, a blowdown valve is installed on the top drum, this valve works if the amount of foam has passed the specified limit.Also Read: Types of Boilers Based on How It Works
So our discussion about the function of the boiler and its main components, may be useful for readers, especially those who have activities in the field of industry and for those who are studying. Of course this article still has many shortcomings, so please understand. Let us study together, Thank you!
PT Indira Mitra Boiler – Specialist Expert in Project Boiler Marine Heater ,Marine boilers used in ships today are mostly for auxiliary purposes in vessels that run on marine diesel engines or diesel electric propulsion. In case of ships using steam turbines (mostly found in high speed vessels used by navies), boilers are a part of the main propulsion system. However, in this article, we will focus on auxiliary boilers, boilers used for running auxiliary systems in a ship.